Carter G. Woodson

Carter G woodson

Carter G. Woodson, Father of Black History 

Race prejudice is merely the logical result of tradition, the inevitable outcome of thorough instruction to the effect that the Negro has never contributed anything to the progress of mankind." - Carter G. Woodson 

Carter Godwin Woodson (December 19, 1875 – April 3, 1950) was an African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History.  Woodson was one of the first scholars to study African American history.  A founder of Journal of Negro History (now titled The Journal of African-American History), and having established Negro History Week, Dr. Woodson has been cited as the father of black history.  Woodson was born the son of former slaves, James and Eliza Riddle Woodson in New Canton, Virginia.  His father helped Union soldiers during the Civil War, and he moved his family to West Virginia when he heard that Huntington was building a high school for blacks.  Coming from a large, poor family, Carter Woodson could not regularly attend school.  Through self-instruction, Woodson mastered the fundamentals of common school subjects by age 17. 

Wanting more education, Carter went to Fayette County to earn a living as a miner in the coal fields.  He was able to devote only a few months each year to his schooling.  In 1895, at age 20, Woodson entered Douglass High School, where he received his diploma in less than two years.  From 1897 to 1900, Woodson taught in Fayette County.  In 1900 he was selected as the principal of Douglass High School.  He earned his Bachelor of Literature degree from Berea College in Kentucky in 1903 by taking classes part-time between 1901 and 1903.

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Carter G. Woodson

From 1903 to 1907, Woodson was a school supervisor in the Philippines.  Later, he attended the University of Chicago, where he was awarded an A.B. and A.M. in 1908.  He was a member of the first black fraternity Sigma Pi Phi and a member of Omega Psi Phi.  He completed his Ph.D. in history at Harvard University in 1912, where he was the second African-American (after W.E.B. DuBois) to earn a doctorate.  His doctoral dissertation, “The Disruption of Virginia”, was based on research he did at the Library of Congress while teaching high school in Washington, D.C.  After earning the doctoral degree, he continued teaching in the public schools, later joining the faculty at Howard University as a professor, where he served as Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.

Convinced that the role of his own people in American history and in the history of other cultures was being ignored or misrepresented among scholars, Woodson realized the need for research into the neglected past of African Americans.  Along with Alexander L. Jackson, Woodson published “The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861”.  His other books followed. “A Century of Negro Migration" continues to be published by the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH).

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Dr. Carter G. Woodson, in his library

Carter G. Woodson’s final work in West Virginia was as the Dean of the West Virginia Collegiate Institute, now West Virginia State University, from 1920 - 1922.  He studied many aspects of African-American history.  In 1924 for example, he published the first survey of free black slaveowners in the United States in 1830. 

Woodson became affiliated with the Washington, D.C. branch of the NAACP, and its chairman Archibald Grimké.  On January 28, 1915, he wrote a letter to Grimké expressing his dissatisfaction with some of its activities.  Woodson made two proposals, that (a) the branch secure an office for a center to which persons may report whatever concerns the black race may have, and from which the Association may extend its operations into every part of the city and (b) a canvasser be appointed to enlist members and obtain subscriptions for The Crisis, the NAACP magazine edited by W.E.B. DuBois.

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Dr. Carter G. Woodson, “A Century of Negro Education”

W.E.B. DuBois added the proposal to divert "patronage from business establishments which do not treat races alike", that is, boycott businesses.  Woodson wrote that he would cooperate as one of the twenty-five effective canvassers, adding that he would pay the office rent for one month.  Grimke did not welcome Woodson's ideas and responded negatively.  Responding to Grimke's comments about his proposals, on March 18, 1915, Woodson wrote, "I am not afraid of being sued by white businessmen.  In fact, I should welcome such a law suit.  It would do the cause much good.  Let us banish fear.  We have been in this mental state for three centuries.  I am a radical.  I am ready to act, if I can find brave men to help me."  His difference of opinion with Grimké, who wanted a more conservative course, contributed to Woodson's ending his affiliation with the NAACP.


Roadside historical marker biography of Woodson 

Black History Month

After leaving Howard University because of differences with its president,Dr. Woodson devoted the rest of his life to historical research.  He worked to preserve the history of African Americans and accumulated a collection of thousands of artifacts and publications. He noted that African American contributions "were overlooked, ignored, and even suppressed by the writers of history textbooks and the teachers who use them."  “Race prejudice”, he concluded, "is merely the logical result of tradition, the inevitable outcome of thorough instruction to the effect that the Negro has never contributed anything to the progress of mankind."

In 1926, Woodson pioneered the celebration of "Negro History Week", designated for the second week in February, to coincide with marking the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass.  The week of recognition became accepted and has been extended as the full month of February, now known as "Black History Month".


Carter G. Woodson, “The Mis-Education of the Negro” 


Woodson believed in self-reliance and racial respect, values he shared with Jamaican Marcus Garvey.  Woodson became a regular columnist for Garvey's weekly Negro World.  His political activism placed him at the center of a circle of many black intellectuals and activists from the 1920s to the 1940s.  Woodson corresponded with W. E. B. Du BoisJohn E. BruceArturo Alfonso SchomburgHubert H. Harrison, and T. Thomas Fortune among others.  Even with the extended duties of the Association, Woodson made time to write academic works such as “The History of the Negro Church” (1922), “The Mis-Education of the Negro” (1933), and others which continue to have wide readership even today.

Carter G. Woodson did not shy away from controversial subjects, and used the pages of Black World to contribute to debates.  One issue related to West Indian/African American relations.  Woodson summarized that "the West Indian Negro is free."  He observed that West Indian societies had been more successful at properly dedicating the necessary amounts of time and resources needed to educate and genuinely emancipate people.  Woodson approved of efforts by West Indians to include materials related to Black history and culture into their school curricula.


Huntington, W.Va., statue honoring Carter G Woodson 

Woodson was ostracized by some of his contemporaries because of his insistence on defining a category of history related to ethnic culture and race.  At the time, these educators felt that it was wrong to teach or understand black history as separate from more general American history.  According to these educators, "Negroes were simply Americans, darker skinned, but with no history apart from that of any other.”  Thus Woodson's efforts to get Black culture and history into the curricula of institutions, even in historically Black colleges, were often unsuccessful.

Today African-American studies have become specialized fields of study in history, music, culture, literature and other areas.  In addition, there is more emphasis on African-American contributions to general American culture.  Thanks to Dr. Carter G. Woodson, America now celebrates Black History Month in February.

Woodson's legacy 


Carter G. Woodson, Black History Month 

That schools have set aside a time each year, to focus upon African American history, is Dr. Woodson's most visible legacy.  His determination to further the recognition of the Negro in American and world history, however, inspired countless other scholars.  Woodson remained focused on his work throughout his life.  Many see him as a man of vision and understanding.  Although Dr. Woodson was among the ranks of the educated few, he did not feel particularly sentimental about elite educational institutions.   The Association and journal which he started in 1915 still continues, and both have earned intellectual respect.

Woodson's other far-reaching activities included the founding in 1920 of the Associated Publishers, the oldest African-American publishing company in the United States. This enabled publication of books concerning blacks which may not have been supported in the rest of the market.  He founded Negro History Week in 1926 (Black History Month).  He created the Negro History Bulletin for teachers in elementary and high school grades.  It has been published continuously since 1937.  Woodson also influenced the Association's direction and subsidizing of research in African-American history.  He wrote numerous articles, monographs and books on Blacks.  “The Negro in Our History” reached its eleventh edition in 1966, when it had sold more than 90,000 copies. 


In 1915 Carter G. Woodson founded the "Association for the Study of Negro Life and History", now the "Association for the Study of African American Life and History" (ASALH).

Dorothy Porter Wesley stated that "Woodson would wrap up his publications, take them to the post office and have dinner at the YMCA."  He would teasingly decline her dinner invitations saying, "No, you are trying to marry me off.  I am married to my work".  Dr. Woodson's most cherished ambition, a six-volume Encyclopedia Africana, lay incomplete at his death on April 3, 1950 at the age of 74.  He is buried at Lincoln Memorial Cemetery in Suitland, Maryland.

Legacy and honors

 Selected bibliography

  • File:History of the Negro Church.jpg
  • Second edition ofThe History of the Negro Church(1921)
  • The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861(1915)
  • A Century of Negro Migration(1918)
  • The History of the Negro Church(1921)
  • The Negro in Our History(1922)
  • Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830, Together With Absentee Ownership of Slaves in the United States in 1830(1924)
  • Free Negro Heads of Families in the United States in 1830, Together With a Brief Treatment of the Free Negro(1925)
  • Negro Orators and Their Orations(1925)
  • The Mind of the Negro as Reflected in Letters Written During the Crisis, 1800-1860(1927)
  • Negro Makers of History(1928)
  • African Myths, Together With Proverbs(1928)
  • The Rural Negro(1930)
  • The Negro Wage Earner(1930)
  • The Mis-Education of the Negro(1933)
  • The Negro Professional Man and the Community, With Special Emphasis on the Physician and the Lawyer(1934)
  • The Story of the Negro Retold(1935)
  • The African Background Outlined: Or, Handbook for the Study of the Negro(1936)
  • African Heroes and Heroines(1939)
  • The Works of Francis J. Grimké(1942)
  • Carter G. Woodson's Appeal: The Lost Manuscript Edition(2008)


Carter Woodson biographical cartoon by Charles Alston, 1943 

Places named after Woodson


Celebration of Carter Woodson and Black History Month, brought to you by Paris-based black artist Ealy Mays



Other links

Woodson's writings

Other information about Woodson

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